History of the Global Innovation Index

The Global Innovation Index (GII) aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innovation and provide the tools that can assist in tailoring policies to promote long-term output growth, improved productivity, and job growth. The GII helps to create an environment in which innovation factors are continually evaluated. It provides a key tool and a rich database of detailed metrics for economies, which in 2017 encompasses 127 economies, representing 92.5% of the world’s population and 97.6% of global GDP.

The Global Innovation Index 2017 (GII), in its 10th edition this year, will be released June 15, and continues to be co-published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, an agency of the United Nations). The core of the GII Report consists of a ranking of world economies’ innovation capabilities and results. Over the last ten years, the GII has established itself as a leading reference on innovation. Understanding in more detail the human aspects behind innovation is essential for the design of policies that help promote economic development and richer innovation-prone environments locally. Recognizing the key role of innovation as a driver of economic growth and prosperity, and the need for a broad horizontal vision of innovation applicable to developed and emerging economies, the GII includes indicators that go beyond the traditional measures of innovation such as the level of research and development.


Global Innovation Index Report 2016 (9th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Chinese Report 2016 (9th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Report 2015 (8th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Report 2014 (7th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Report 2013 (6th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Report 2012 (5th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Report 2011 (4th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Report 2009-2010 (3th Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

Global Innovation Index Report 2008-2009 (2nd Edition)

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Global Innovation Index Report 2007 (1st Edition)

Full Report(PDF)

GII Framework

The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an evolving project that builds on its previous editions while incorporating newly available data and that is inspired by the latest research on the measurement of innovation. The GII relies on two sub-indices—the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index—each built around key pillars.

Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities: (1) Institutions, (2) Human capital and research, (3) Infrastructure, (4) Market sophistication, and (5) Business sophistication. Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs: (6) Knowledge and technology outputs and (7) Creative outputs.

Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators (81 in total in 2017). Sub-pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of individual indicators; pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of sub-pillar scores.

Four measures are then calculated:

  • Innovation Input Sub-Index: is the simple average of the first five pillar scores
  • Innovation Output Sub-Index is the simple average of the last two pillar scores
  • The overall GII score is the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Indices
  • The Innovation Efficiency Ratio is the ratio of the Output Sub-Index over the Input Sub-Index

The GII gathers data from more than 30 sources, covering a large spectrum of innovation drivers and results; privileging hard data over qualitative assessments (only five survey questions were included in the GII 2017)

The framework is revised every year in a transparent exercise to improve the way innovation is measured. For more on the latest updates to the framework, see Annex 2 of the GII 2016.



In 2011, an Advisory Board was set up to provide advice on the research underlying the Global Innovation Index (GII), generate synergies at its stages of development, and assist with the dissemination of its messages and results. The Advisory Board is a select group of leading international practitioners and experts with unique knowledge and skills in the realm of innovation. Its members, while coming from diverse geographical and institutional backgrounds (international organizations, the public sector, non-governmental organizations, business, and academia), participate in their personal capacity. We are grateful for the time and support provided by the Advisory Board members.

For 2017, we welcome a new member to the Advisory Board: Chuan Poh Lim, Chairman, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR).

2017 Advisory Board Members

  • Robert D. Atkinson

    President, The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF),

    United States of America

  • Irina Bokova

    Director General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

    Organization (UNESCO)

  • Dongmin Chen

    Professor/Dean, School of Innovation and Entrepreneurship and Director,

    Office of Business Development for Science and Technology, Peking

  • Fabiola Gianotti

    Director-General of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

  • Leonid Gokhberg

    First Vice-Rector, Higher School of Economics (HSE), and Director, HSE

    Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, Russian

  • Yuko Harayama

    Executive Member, Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan

  • Hugo Hollanders

    Senior Researcher, UNU-MERIT (Maastricht University)

  • Beethika Khan

    Program Director, National Science Foundation (NSF), United States of America

  • Chuan Poh Lim

    Chairman, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)

  • Raghunath Anant Mashelkar

    Bhatnagar Fellow, National Chemical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR); Chairperson, National Innovation Foundation; and President, Global Research Alliance, India

  • Mary O’Kane

    Professor, NSW Chief Scientist and Engineer, Australia

  • Sibusiso Sibisi

    President and Chief Executive Officer, Council for Scientific and Industrial

    Research (CSIR), South Africa

  • Pedro Wongtschowski

    Member of the Board of Directors of Ultrapar Participações S.A. and of Embraer S.A.; Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Brazilian Enterprise for Research and Innovation (EMBRAPII) and of the Brazilian Association of Innovative Companies (ANPEI)

  • Houlin Zhao

    Secretary-General, International Telecommunication Union (ITU)


The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) and Strategy&, and the National Confederation of Industry Brazil (CNI) and Brazilian Service of Support to Micro and Small Enterprises (Sebrae) collaborate as GII Knowledge Partners, believing in the role of innovation in increasing the competitiveness of nations, enabling economic growth, driving societal changes and building the foundation of a country’s future.

  • Johnson
  • Strategy-PwC


For all general, research, or media inquiries, please contact us at:

Rafael Escalona Reynoso

Lead Researcher

The Global Innovation Index