History of the Global Innovation Index
The Global Innovation Index (GII) aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innovation and provide the tools that can assist in tailoring policies to promote long-term output growth, improved productivity, and job growth. The GII helps to create an environment in which innovation factors are continually evaluated. It provides a key tool and a rich database of detailed metrics for economies, which in 2016 encompassed 128 economies, representing 92.8% of the world’s population and 97.9% of global GDP.
The Global Innovation Index 2016 (GII), in its 9th edition this year, is co-published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, an agency of the United Nations). The core of the GII Report consists of a ranking of world economies’ innovation capabilities and results. Over the last nine years, the GII has established itself as a leading reference on innovation. Understanding in more detail the human aspects behind innovation is essential for the design of policies that help promote economic development and richer innovation-prone environments locally. Recognizing the key role of innovation as a driver of economic growth and prosperity, and the need for a broad horizontal vision of innovation applicable to developed and emerging economies, the GII includes indicators that go beyond the traditional measures of innovation such as the level of research and development.
The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an evolving project that builds on its previous editions while incorporating newly available data and that is inspired by the latest research on the measurement of innovation. The GII relies on two sub-indices—the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index—each built around key pillars.
Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities: (1) Institutions, (2) Human capital and research, (3) Infrastructure, (4) Market sophistication, and (5) Business sophistication. Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs: (6) Knowledge and technology outputs and (7) Creative outputs.
Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators (82 in total in 2016). Sub-pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of individual indicators; pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of sub-pillar scores.
Four measures are then calculated:
Innovation Input Sub-Index: is the simple average of the first five pillar scores
Innovation Output Sub-Index is the simple average of the last two pillar scores
The overall GII score is the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Indices
The Innovation Efficiency Ratio is the ratio of the Output Sub-Index over the Input Sub-Index
The GII gathers data from more than 30 sources, covering a large spectrum of innovation drivers and results; privileging hard data over qualitative assessments (only five survey questions were included in the GII 2016)
The framework is revised every year in a transparent exercise to improve the way innovation is measured. For more on the updates to the framework of the GII 2016, see Annex 2.
In 2011, an Advisory Board was set up to provide advice on the research underlying the Global Innovation Index (GII), generate synergies at its stages of development, and assist with the dissemination of its messages and results. The Advisory Board is a select group of leading international practitioners and experts with unique knowledge and skills in the realm of innovation. Its members, while coming from diverse geographical and institutional backgrounds (international organizations, the public sector, non-governmental organizations, business, and academia), participate in their personal capacity. We are grateful for the time and support provided by the Advisory Board members.
For 2016, we welcome two new members to the Advisory Board: Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and Pedro Wongtschowski, Member of the Board of Directors of Ultrapar Participações S.A. and of Embraer S.A.; Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Brazilian Enterprise for Research and Innovation (EMBRAPII) and of the Brazilian Association of Innovative Companies (ANPEI).
2016 Advisory Board Members
Professor/Dean, School of Innovation and Entrepreneurship and Director,
Office of Business Development for Science and Technology, Peking
First Vice-Rector, Higher School of Economics (HSE), and Director, HSE
Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, Russian
Executive Member, Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan
President and Chief Executive Officer, Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research (CSIR), South Africa
For all general, research, or media inquiries, please contact us at:
Rafael Escalona Reynoso
The Global Innovation Index