ANALYSIS

BROWSE, COMPARE AND VIEW IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF THE GII 2016 REPORT

YEAR OF REPORT

CHOOSE YOUR ECONOMY BELOW

GII 2016 rank

92

 

Population

2896.68

thousands

Gross domestic product

11.54

US($) billions

GDP per capita, PPP$

11300.80

US($) thousands

  Strength         Weakness

GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX

The overall GII score is the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Index scores.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    92
  • Score

    28.4
  • Innovation Efficiency Ratio
  • Rank

    121
  • Score

    0.4
  • Innovation Input Sub-index
  • Rank

    71
  • Score

    40.5
  • Innovation Output Sub-index
  • Rank

    115
  • Score

    16.2

INSTITUTIONS

The Institutions pillar captures the institutional framework of a country.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    64
  • Score

    62.3 
  • Political environment
  • Rank

    53
  • Score

    55.9 
  • Political stability and absence of violence/terrorism
    Index that captures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically motivated violence and terrorism. Scores are standardized.
  • Rank

    44
  • Score

    74.6 
  • Government effectiveness
    Index that captures perceptions of quality of public and civil services and the degree of their independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government"s commitment to such policies. Scores are standardized.
  • Rank

    73
  • Score

    37.1 
  • Regulatory environment
  • Rank

    83
  • Score

    59.4 
  • Regulatory quality
    Index that captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private-sector development. Scores are standardized.
  • Rank

    61
  • Score

    50.3 
  • Rule of law
    Index that captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. Scores are standardized.
  • Rank

    84
  • Score

    37.9 
  • Cost of redundancy dismissal
    Sum of notice period and severance pay for redundancy dismissal (in salary weeks, averages for workers with 1, 5, and 10 years of tenure, with a minimum threshold of 8 weeks)
  • Rank

    89
  • Score

    74.6 
  • Business environment
  • Rank

    58
  • Score

    71.8 
  • Ease of starting a business
    The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their distance to frontier scores for starting a business. These scores are the simple average of the distance to frontier scores for each of the component indicators.
  • Rank

    48
  • Score

    90.1 
  • Ease of resolving insolvency
    The ranking of economies on the ease of resolving insolvency is determined by sorting their distance to frontier scores for resolving insolvency. These scores are the simple average of the distance to frontier scores for the recovery rate and strength of insolvency framework index.
  • Rank

    39
  • Score

    63.4 
  • Ease of paying taxes
    The ranking of economies on the ease of paying taxes is determined by sorting their distance to frontier scores for paying taxes.
  • Rank

    98
  • Score

    62.0 

HUMAN CAPITAL AND RESEARCH

This pillar gauges the human capital of countries.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    90
  • Score

    23.6 
  • Education
  • Rank

    93
  • Score

    37.5 
  • Expenditure on education
    Government operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment, as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP).
  • Rank

    92
  • Score

    28.1 
  • Government expenditure on education per pupil, secondary
    Government spending on education divided by the total number of secondary students, as a percentage of GDP per capita.
  • Rank

    107
  • Score

    1.1 
  • School life expectancy
    Total number of years of schooling that a child of a certain age can expect to receive in the future, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular age is equal to the current enrolment ratio for that age.
  • Rank

    33
  • Score

    69.4 
  • Assessment in reading, mathematics, and science
    PISA average scales in reading, mathematics, and science
  • Rank

    57
  • Score

    23.6 
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary
    The number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Rank

    58
  • Score

    79.2 
  • Tertiary education
  • Rank

    76
  • Score

    32.2 
  • Tertiary enrolment
    The ratio of total tertiary enrolment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the tertiary level of education.
  • Rank

    37
  • Score

    56.6 
  • Graduates in science and engineering
    The share of all tertiary graduates in science, manufacturing, engineering, and construction over all tertiary graduates.
  • Rank

    73
  • Score

    30.7 
  • Tertiary inbound mobility
    The number of students from abroad studying in a given country, as a percentage of the total tertiary enrolment in that country.
  • Rank

    64
  • Score

    10.9 
  • Research and development (R&D)
  • Rank

    104
  • Score

    1.1 
  • Researchers
    Researchers per million population, full-time equivalence. Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned.
  • Rank

    76
  • Score

    1.8 
  • Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD)
    Total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period as a percentage of GDP.
  • Rank

    95
  • Score

    2.6 
  • Global R&D companies, average expenditure top 3
    Average expenditure on R&D of the top three global companies.
  • Rank

    45
  • Score

    0.0 
  • QS university ranking average score top 3 universities
    Sub-pillar 2.3.4 QS university ranking average score of top 3 universities
  • Rank

    73
  • Score

    0.0 

INFRASTRUCTURE

The third pillar measures Information and communication technologies (ICTs), General infrastructure, and Ecological sustainability.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    64
  • Score

    43.6 
  • Information and communication technologies (ICTs)
  • Rank

    79
  • Score

    44.2 
  • ICT access
    The ICT access index is a composite index that weights five ICT indicators (20% each). It is the first sub-index in ITU"s ICT Development Index (IDI).
  • Rank

    87
  • Score

    45.0 
  • ICT use
    The ICT use index is a composite index that weights three ICT indicators (33% each). It is the second sub-index in ITU"s ICT Development Index (IDI).
  • Rank

    70
  • Score

    34.0 
  • Government's online service
    Research teams assessed each country’s national website, including the national central portal, e-services portal, and e-participation portal as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labour, social services, health, finance, and environment, as applicable.
  • Rank

    72
  • Score

    44.9 
  • Online e-participation
    The United Nations E-Participation Index is based on the survey used for the UN Online Service Index. The survey was expanded with questions emphasizing quality in the connected presence stage of e-government.
  • Rank

    59
  • Score

    52.9 
  • General infrastructure
  • Rank

    56
  • Score

    38.4 
  • Electricity output
    Electricity production, measured at the terminals of all alternator sets in a station.
  • Rank

    72
  • Score

    12.2 
  • Logistics performance
    A multidimensional assessment of logistics performance, the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) compares the trade logistics profiles of 160 countries and rates them on a scale of 1 (worst) to 5 (best).
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Gross capital formation
    Ratio of total gross capital formation in current local currency to GDP in current local currency.
  • Rank

    20
  • Score

    51.5 
  • Ecological sustainability
  • Rank

    45
  • Score

    48.2 
  • GDP per unit of energy use
    Purchasing power parity gross domestic product (PPP$ GDP) per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use.
  • Rank

    19
  • Score

    41.9 
  • Environmental performance
    This index ranks countries on 20 performance indicators tracked across policy categories that cover both environmental public health and ecosystem vitality. These indicators gauge how close countries are to established environmental policy goals.
  • Rank

    58
  • Score

    74.4 
  • ISO 14001 environmental certificates
    ISO 14001:2015 sets out the criteria for an environmental management system and can be certified to.
  • Rank

    59
  • Score

    8.5 

MARKET SOPHISTICATION

The Market sophistication pillar has three sub-pillars structured around market conditions and the total level of transactions.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    30
  • Score

    51.2 
  • Credit
  • Rank

    82
  • Score

    27.8 
  • Ease of getting credit
    The ranking of economies on the ease of getting credit is determined by sorting their distance to frontier scores for getting credit.
  • Rank

    39
  • Score

    65.0 
  • Domestic credit to private sector
    Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by financial corporations, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment.
  • Rank

    80
  • Score

    13.5 
  • Microfinance institutions' gross loan portfolio
    Combined gross loan balances per microfinance institution (current US$), divided by GDP (current US$) and multiplied by 100.
  • Rank

    40
  • Score

    4.9 
  • Investment
  • Rank

    6
  • Score

    73.3 
  • Ease of protecting minority investors
    The ranking is the simple average of the distance to frontier scores for the extent of conflict of interest regulation index and the extent of shareholder governance index.
  • Rank

    8
  • Score

    73.3 
  • Market capitalization
    Market capitalization (also known as ‘market value’) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Total value of stocks traded
    The value of shares traded is the total number of shares traded, both domestic and foreign, multiplied by their respective matching prices.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Venture capital deals
    Thomson Reuters data on private equity deals, per deal, with information on the location of investment, investment company, investor firms, and funds, among other details.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Trade, competition, & market scale
  • Rank

    94
  • Score

    52.6 
  • Applied tariff rate, weighted mean
    Weighted mean applied tariff is the average of effectively applied rates weighted by the product import shares corresponding to each partner country.
  • Rank

    38
  • Score

    92.7 
  • Intensity of local competition
    Average answer to the survey question: In your country, how intense is competition in the local markets? [1 = not intense at all; 7 = extremely intense]
  • Rank

    120
  • Score

    50.6 
  • Domestic market scale
    The domestic market size is measured by gross domestic product (GDP) based on the purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP, in current international dollar (billions).
  • Rank

    104
  • Score

    33.5 

BUSINESS SOPHISTICATION

The fifth enabler pillar tries to capture the level of business sophistication to assess how conducive firms are to innovation activity.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    114
  • Score

    21.9 
  • Knowledge workers
  • Rank

    104
  • Score

    22.4 
  • Employment in knowledge-intensive services
    Employment in knowledge-intensive services (% of workforce)
  • Rank

    84
  • Score

    24.9 
  • Firms offering formal training
    The percentage of firms offering formal training programs for their permanent, full-time employees.
  • Rank

    74
  • Score

    26.9 
  • GERD performed by business enterprise
    Gross expenditure on R&D performed by business enterprise as a percentage of GDP.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • GERD financed by business enterprise
    Gross expenditure on R&D financed by business enterprise as a percentage of total gross expenditure on R&D.
  • Rank

    82
  • Score

    4.1 
  • Females employed with advanced degrees
    The percentage of females employed with advanced degrees out of total employed.
  • Rank

    68
  • Score

    26.4 
  • Innovation linkages
  • Rank

    119
  • Score

    17.3 
  • University/industry research collaboration
    Average answer to the survey question: In your country, to what extent do people collaborate and share ideas in between companies and universities/research institutions? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]
  • Rank

    121
  • Score

    22.3 
  • State of cluster development
    Average answer to survey question on role of clusters in the economy: In your country, how widespread are well-developed and deep clusters (geographic concentrations of firms, suppliers, producers of related products and services, and specialized institutions in a particular field)?
  • Rank

    119
  • Score

    30.9 
  • GERD financed by abroad
    Percentage of gross expenditure on R&D financed by abroad—i.e., with foreign financing.
  • Rank

    53
  • Score

    9.4 
  • Joint venture/strategic alliance deals
    Thomson Reuters data on joint ventures/strategic alliances deals, per deal, with details on the country of origin of partner firms, among others.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Patent families filed in at least two offices
    Number of patent families filed by residents in at least two offices.
  • Rank

    86
  • Score

    1.1 
  • Knowledge absorption
  • Rank

    78
  • Score

    25.9 
  • Intellectual property payments
    Charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere payments (% of total trade) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010.
  • Rank

    61
  • Score

    12.4 
  • High-tech imports
    High-technology imports minus re-imports (% of total trade).
  • Rank

    121
  • Score

    0.0 
  • ICT services imports
    Telecommunications, computer and information services (% of total trade) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010.
  • Rank

    42
  • Score

    23.9 
  • Foreign direct investment, net inflows
    This data series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
  • Rank

    14
  • Score

    60.6 
  • Research talent in business enterprise
    Professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, and systems, as well as in the management of these projects, broken down by the sectors in which they are employed.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 

KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY OUTPUTS

This pillar covers all those variables that are traditionally thought to be the fruits of inventions and or innovations.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    106
  • Score

    17.2 
  • Knowledge creation
  • Rank

    122
  • Score

    2.0 
  • Patent applications by origin
    Number of resident patent applications filed at a given national or regional patent office (per billion PPP$ GDP)
  • Rank

    79
  • Score

    2.2 
  • PCT international applications by origin
    Number of international patent applications filed by residents at the Patent Cooperation Treaty (per billion PPP$ GDP)
  • Rank

    70
  • Score

    0.8 
  • Utility model applications by origin
    Number of utility model applications filed by residents at the national patent office (per billion PPP$ GDP)
  • Rank

    60
  • Score

    0.2 
  • Scientific and technical publications
    Number of scientific and technical journal articles (per billion PPP$ GDP)
  • Rank

    97
  • Score

    6.4 
  • Citable documents H index
    The H index is an economy"s number of published articles (H) that have received at least H citations in the period 1996–2014
  • Rank

    120
  • Score

    2.0 
  • Knowledge impact
  • Rank

    107
  • Score

    26.3 
  • Growth rate of GDP per person engaged
    Growth of gross domestic product (GDP) per person engaged provides a measure of labor productivity (defined as output per unit of labor input).
  • Rank

    66
  • Score

    57.0 
  • New business density
    Number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting, per thousand population aged 15–64 years old.
  • Rank

    65
  • Score

    6.4 
  • Total computer software spending
    Computer software spending includes the total value of purchased or leased packaged software such as operating systems, database systems, programming tools, utilities, and applications. Data are reported as a percentage of GDP.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • ISO 9001 quality certificates
    ISO 9001:2015 sets out the criteria for a quality management system and is the only standard in the family that can be certified to (although this is not a requirement)
  • Rank

    60
  • Score

    11.2 
  • High-tech and medium high-tech output
    High-tech and medium-high-tech output as a percentage of total manufactures output, on the basis of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) classification of Technology Intensity Definition.
  • Rank

    98
  • Score

    0.0 
  • Knowledge diffusion
  • Rank

    72
  • Score

    23.2 
  • Intellectual property receipts
    Charges for the use of intellectual property not included elsewhere receipts (% of total trade) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010.
  • Rank

    82
  • Score

    0.7 
  • High-tech exports
    High-technology exports minus re-exports (% of total trade).
  • Rank

    115
  • Score

    0.1 
  • ICT services exports
    Telecommunications, computer and information services (% of total trade) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010.
  • Rank

    21
  • Score

    34.9 
  • Foreign direct investment, net outflows
    This data series shows net outflows of investment from the reporting economy to the rest of the world and is divided by GDP.
  • Rank

    53
  • Score

    40.2 

CREATIVE OUTPUTS

The last pillar on creative outputs measures the role of creativity for innovation.

  • Rank
  • Score
  • Overall
  • Rank

    119
  • Score

    15.3 
  • Intangible assets
  • Rank

    121
  • Score

    24.9 
  • Trademark application class count by origin
    Number of trademark applications issued to residents at a given national or regional office (per billion PPP$ GDP)
  • Rank

    84
  • Score

    9.7 
  • Industrial designs by origin
    Number of designs contained in industrial design applications filed at a given national or regional office (per billion PPP$ GDP)
  • Rank

    82
  • Score

    2.2 
  • ICTs and business model creation
    Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do ICTs enable new business models? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]
  • Rank

    111
  • Score

    45.0 
  • ICTs and organizational model creation
    Average answer to the question: In your country, to what extent do ICTs enable new organizational models (e.g., virtual teams, remote working, telecommuting) within companies? [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]
  • Rank

    121
  • Score

    31.5 
  • Creative goods and services
  • Rank

    117
  • Score

    2.1 
  • Cultural and creative services exports
    Creative services exports (% of total exports) according to the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification EBOPS 2010.
  • Rank

    54
  • Score

    4.0 
  • National feature films produced
    Number of national feature films produced (per million population 15–69 years old).
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Global entertainment and media market
    The Global entertainment and media outlook (the Outlook) provides a single comparable source of five-year forecast and five-year historic consumer and advertiser spending data and commentary, for 13 entertainment and media segments, across 61 countries.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Printing and publishing output
    Publishing, printing, and reproduction of recorded media output as a percentage of total manufacturing output.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a 
  • Creative goods exports
    Total value of creative goods exports, net of re-exports (current US$) over total trade.
  • Rank

    101
  • Score

    1.2 
  • Online creativity
  • Rank

    64
  • Score

    9.3 
  • Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
    Generic top-level domains (gTLDs) (per thousand population 15–69 years old).
  • Rank

    48
  • Score

    7.1 
  • Country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs)
    Country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs) (per thousand population 15–69 years old).
  • Rank

    72
  • Score

    1.6 
  • Wikipedia monthly edits
    Wikipedia monthly page edits (per million population 15–69 years old).
  • Rank

    47
  • Score

    19.0 
  • Video uploads on YouTube
    Total number of video uploads on YouTube, per country, scaled by population 15–69 years old.
  • Rank

    n/a
  • Score

    n/a