For this eight edition, the Global Innovation Index 2015 (GII) covers 141 economies, accounting for 95.1% of the world’s population and 98.6% of the world’s Gross Domestic Product (in US Dollars).
The Global Innovation Index 2015 (GII) relies on two sub-indices, the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index, each built around key pillars.
Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities: (1) Institutions, (2) Human capital and research, (3) Infrastructure, (4) Market sophistication, and (5) Business sophistication. Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs: (6) Knowledge and technology outputs and (7) Creative outputs.
Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators (79 in total). Sub-pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of individual indicators; pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of sub-pillar scores. Four measures are then calculated:
- The Innovation Input Sub-Index is the simple average of the first five pillar scores.
- The Innovation Output Sub-Index is the simple average of the last two pillar scores.
- The overall GII is the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Indices.
- The Innovation Efficiency Ratio is the ratio of the Output Sub-Index over the Input Sub-Index.
Global Innovation Index 2015 Conceptual Framework
The GII gathers data from more than 30 sources, covering a large spectrum of innovation drivers and results; privileging hard data over qualitative assessments (only five survey questions are included this year).
The framework is revised and adjusted every year in a transparent exercise. In the GII 2015, a total of six indicators were modified this year: three indicators were deleted or replaced, two underwent methodological changes (new computation methodology at the source), and one changed its indicator number as a result of the framework adjustments.
Scores and rankings from one year to the next are not directly comparable. Making inferences about absolute or relative performance on the basis of year-on-year differences in rankings can be misleading. Each ranking reflects the relative positioning of that particular country/economy on the basis of the conceptual framework, the data coverage, and the sample of economies—elements that change from one year to another.